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World Situation Scope Essay Example for Free
World Situation Scope Essay IA Review of the World Situation Scope This paper will focus its attention on the CIAs assessment of the world situation in regards to terrorism. The focus of the paper will be the September 11th attacks made on American soil as well as go into the history of Al Qaeda, their resources for planning terrorism and their history in recruitment. Since the release of the original document, which discussed the state of world security in May 0f 1949, there has been many changes to the political structure of the areas discussed. At the time of the original document, the major issues which concerned American security involved the recently defeated Germans, the USSR, the Far East, the Near East and Latin America. However, the security of the United States of America has been under constant stress since the attacks of September 11, 2001. Though programs have been altered or created in the National Security Agency, the Department of Homeland Security and the Central Intelligence Agency, there remains a threat on Americans, and American holdings throughout the world. As Andrew Kydd and Barbara Walter explain, there is a distinct politic to the notion of terrorism. However, these tactics are not always effective. There are many events of terrorism in the world each year, yet only a handful are regarded with any merit. According to Kydd and Walter, through a well argued and insightful article, it is the trust between groups that must be destroyed for an extremist attack to be successful. This is the motivation behind the response to the attacks of September 11, 2001. On Begin Match to source 7 in source list: (11-30-05) http://www. adultbuzz. com/121201/page4. phtmlDecember 6, 2001,End Match then Begin Match to source 7 in source list: (11-30-05) http://www. adultbuzz. com/121201/page4. phtmlAttorney General John Ashcroft addressed the Senate Judiciary CommitteeEnd Match in praise of this act, and its restructuring of the NSA, CIA and FBI. (Ashcroft 524) His rhetoric was patriotic and concise, and his views of the USA PATRIOT act and its changes seemed sincere. This was supported with the passage of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373, which paved the road for the Patriot act itself. Eric Rosand wrote about the resolution in 2003. His response to its necessity was one of sympathy to the government, for having to face such a difficult challenge. However, not everyone who has commented on the alterations of the US governmental policy has done so with such reverence. David Cole compared the investigations into possible terrorist cells in the United States, to the Palmer Raids of 1919 where, following a series of bombings, J. Edgar Hoover led a series of round ups of immigrants across the country and held them without trial or charge in unconscionable conditions, interrogated incommunicado and in some cases tortured. (529) This attitude has spread throughout the country, as the appearance of impropriety has permeated the governments handling of the terrorists investigations. Mary Jacoby brings up the question of the legal definition of Detainee. This is in response to the holding of prisoners at the Guantanamo Bay military base in Cuba. The prisoners of this facility have been acquired from around the world from the war in Afghanistan, and from arrests done in dozens of countries around the world. However, the problem arises when the soldiers fighting for the Afghan military are brought in as detainees, rather than prisoners of war. While the Guantanamo prison has its apologists, such as Charles Krauthammer who states that freeing of these men would be lunacy (537) the fact remains, that in strict terms, the United States is in break of the Geneva Convention by holding POWs. Fernando Reinares noted in his article, The Empire Rarely Strikes Back, that after more than 2400 acts of terrorism against American citizens and interests there have been only three occasions of overt military response. (Reinares 92) However, because of the incredible size and depth of impact of the September 11th attacks, war became unavoidable. There did arise a problem with the military action, however, as a growing public opinion seemed to point the target as Islam itself, rather than just Al-Qaeda. This prompted the United States to enlist the help of as many Islamic nations as possible to counter act this perception. (Aretxega 143) This coalition of Islamic nations does nothing to counteract the rise in racial profiling within the United States. Sherry Colb wrote about the foreseen changes in American law enforcement following the September 11th attacks. Her article articulated the problem of racial profiling and its consequences. Cold notes that real numbers do not support profiling. (539) However this does not stop the utilization of profiling in airports, or in traffic stops. However, this too has its supporters, from such sources as law professor Roger Clegg. His response to the topic of racial profiling is one of acceptance and justification. So what? (Clegg 542) Clegg asks of the act of profiling. However his racial make up lends itself easily to such opinions, as an educated white male is rarely accosted for being white, educated or male. Key Findings Research into this fact has revealed that there are several locations outside of the United States where Americans and American holdings are under the greatest threat. There are varied threat levels in these locations, which range from possible altercations, to threats to life and property. However, there are countries which pose a threat to the safety of the United States in ways other than travel advisories. Some nations and their governments have strong anger towards the United States. These nations have alluded to, or are actively pursuing policies which are intended to cause harm to the United States of America. Some of these nations, such as North Korea and Iran, have instituted programs which are designed to test the United States. Other countries have entered into, or have begun to create trade unions which are designed to damage the United States position on the world market. Regardless of the type of threat these nations pose, there remains the necessity to understand and counteract these programs. This is difficult, however, as the degree and sophistication of these programs varies as widely as the threats themselves. The addressing of these issues are of critical importance to the continued safety of the United States and its citizens at home and abroad. Analysis 1. North Korea: Nuclear weapons proliferation. This nation has been a location of turmoil since its liberation from Japanese control following World War II. [i] However, in recent years, the threat of North Korea upon the United States has increased as the power and stability of the North Korean government, under the leadership of Kim Jong- Il, has begun to wane. Over the course of the past few years, Kim Jong-Il has made public statements attesting to his desire to develop nuclear weaponry for possible use against the United States of America. This threat has been elevated as of October 9, 2006. On this date, the North Korean military conducted its first successful test of its nuclear weapon. Though the yield of the weapon was low, reportedly only 550 tons,[ii] it does justify concerns that the government of North Korea may indeed develop a combat ready nuclear devise in the near future. The small yield of the blast is not thought to be indicative of their capabilities, however. Large scale underground nuclear testing requires large areas, 50-60 square miles of desert, to accomplish. North Korea does not have significantly large areas of land that are undeveloped or do not contain ground water. [iii] Because of this, the damage that would have been caused by a larger yield test would have been too great to the infrastructure of the nation to allow. Managing the crisis The threat that North Korea poses to the United States is being managed, currently, through various levels of diplomatic means. There have been several calls for 6-party talks, meetings involving multiple nations Begin Match to source 9 in source list: http://www. spacewar.com/2003/031015003520. s1ia1dhk. htmlthe United States, China, Russia, South Korea, North Korea and JapanEnd Match however these meetings have yet to occur. Because of this, the threat that North Korea poses to the United States remains serious. 2. Iran: Terrorist support and instigation of hostilities. The government of Iran has been at ends with the administration of the United States for many years. The current leader of the Iranian government, President Mahmud Ahmdi-Nejad, has openly stated his contempt for the presence of the United States military in the Middle East. Travel to the country of Iran by Americans is not recommended as the United States holds no Begin Match to source 4 in source list: (7-27-06) http://www. mahablog. com/category/blogging/diplomatic or consular relations with the Islamic Republic of Iran and therefore cannot provide protection or routine consular services to American citizens in Iran. [End Matchiv] Iran Begin Match to source 4 in source list: (7-27-06) http://www. mahablog. com/category/blogging/is aEnd Match Muslim nation, and therefore has issues with the world view of the current war on terrorism, which is being headed by the United States of America. There is strong international sentiment that the Begin Match to source 5 in source list: (1-2-07) http://www. pwgd. com/blog/lb/6196-fbino-hard-evidence-connecting-bin-laden-connected-to-911-how-israeli-terrorist-became-a-victim-global-snapshots-capitalist-intersection-of-class-nationalrace-gender-oppression/war on terror is a war against theEnd Match religion of Islam and therefore a war against all Muslims. While this is not the case, few nations in the region have actively attempted to dispel this misconception. The relations between Iran and the United States is strained for another reason Irans support of the terrorist group, Hezbollah. While originating and operating outside of Irans borders, Hezbollah has been linked to various acts of violence throughout the Middle East. Most recently, during the short war between Israel and Lebanon, Hezbollah was involved in acts of violence, kidnapping and attacks on Israeli interests. Iran has been known to, and is suspected to still be funding this group. Following the hostilities of the war between Israel and Lebanon, a large influx of money was seen within Lebanon. Though the money was given out by cells of the Hezbollah group, to people whose homes were damaged or destroyed in the fighting, it is widely accepted that the money originated from the government of Iran. Because of these issues, Iran has been seen as one of the key threats to United States security. Their open support of anti-American factions within Iraq, as well as multiple allusions towards their seeking nuclear weapons, has kept Iran on the list of chief threats. 3. Afghanistan: Center of Al-Qaeda recruitment. The terrorist group, Al-Qaeda continues to be a Begin Match to source 12 in source list: http://www.parstimes. comthreat to theEnd Match safety and Begin Match to source 12 in source list: http://www. parstimes. comsecurity of the United States. End Match Since Begin Match to source 12 in source list: http://www. parstimes. comtheEnd Match attacks on September 11, 2006, Osama bin-Laden and his terrorist group, Al-Qaeda, have been linked to multiple acts of violence around the world. The nation of Afghanistan was, until the invasion by coalition forces in 2001, ruled by the Taliban a hard-lined government with strong ties the terrorist group. Bin-Laden and Al-Qaeda have been hunted since the September 11th attacks, and many key leaders have been captured or killed. However the presence of the group in Afghanistan is increasing again and Osama bin Laden remains at large. [v] The war within Afghanistan has continued since 2001, with no certainty for an end. This has caused dangerous instability within the region. Despite the institution of a democratically elected government within the nation, political stability has not been reached. 4. Mexico: Unprotected border crossings and illegal immigration. The number one priority of preventing terrorism is to prevent terrorist travel. This tactic however has not been serious employed with regards to border security and finding and preventing terrorism since the focus as previously stated is more about finding terrorists not finding the means by which they are mobile. One system that has not be utilized in border security is the means by which to detect whether documentation is authentic since terrorists have system by which they infiltrate a country their travel channels should be found and exploited but no real clause in the Patriot Act has been given or stated. Terrorists establish themselves in the United States through their travel channels by which there is a paper trail of documents; therefore, the Patriot Act, and NAFTA should not only be focusing their efforts at the borders where the terrorists may or may not be traversing but the government should also be wary of terrorist activity already transpiring inside the country, as The US 9/11 Commission on Border Control, Begin Match to source 2 in source list: http://elections.donyell. netEach of these checkpoints or portals is a screening-a chance to establish that people are who they say they are and are seeking access for their stated purpose, to intercept identifiable suspects, and to take effective action. [End Matchvi] Begin Match to source 2 in source list: http://elections. donyell.net TheEnd Match United States since September 11 has kept a more watchful eye on the Mexican border to ensure that large trucks are not passing the borders which could hold weapons, but this seems to be the only action officials and military are taking in regards to border control according to Zagorin in The Mexican Border Will Get a Closer Look. [vii] In this article Zagorin is hard pressed to find any true action the US is taking in regards to border control and Zagorin sites many examples of how Mexico is making its own efforts to decreased the chances Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Zagorin, Adam. al-Qaeda terroristsEnd Match coming Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Zagorin, Adam. into the countryEnd Match or leaving the country, Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Zagorin, Adam. The Mexicans will also focus on flight schools and aviation facilities on their side of the frontier. another episode has some senior U. S. officials worried; the theft of a crop-duster aircraft south of San Diego, apparently by three men from southern Mexico who assaulted a watchman and then flew off in a southerly direction End Match Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Zagorin, Adam. a senior U. S. law-enforcement official notes that crop dusters can beEnd Match sued Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Zagorin, Adam. to disperse toxicEnd Match substance Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Zagorin, Adam. TheEnd Match Begin Match to source 3 in source list: (7-23-06) http://www. usatoday. com/printedition/news/20060413/a_felony13. art. htmpeople who enter the country legally and then overstay their visas-as many as 40% of the nations estimated 12 million illegal immigrants, are guilty of a civil violation. [End Matchviii] Thus Begin Match to source 3 in source list: (7-23-06) http://www. usatoday.com/printedition/news/20060413/a_felony13. art. htmitEnd Match becomes apparent that the United States is focusing more attention on illegal immigration than on terrorism since all of their efforts are geared toward this goal. Since these hijackers could have been apprehended but were not, and the government has only increased the number of patrols on the either border and not per se the system by which illegal immigrants are apprehended it stands to reason that the government is not altogether prepared or establishing a methodology in apprehending terrorists, they are merely cracking down by using brute force without strategy. Conclusion The safety of the United States is in constant turmoil. While much has been done over the course of the past five years, there are few authorities who would actually state that the country is safe. Though the year 2006 was free of any dramatic assaults against the United States, the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have become increasingly costly. Both have served to empower our enemies, rather than defeat them. In the information presented in this paper it gave different avenues by which the United States could be making a better effort to fight terror by simply having a different strategy on terrorism inclusive of finding their travel channels and relying on identification and false passports. The United States approach to border control, since they are using the same system now as prior to September 11 have not changed how they approach terrorists and their apprehension thus leaving room terrorists to take advantage of this lax method and exploit it. This year has seen, however, a dramatic reversal in the power center of the nation following the November elections, the congressional majorities both switched to the Democrats. The result of this switch is unclear, as of yet, however, there are many who are hopeful that the new majority will take the steps necessary to permanently secure the safety of the nation. Notes on Sources 1. The CIA World Fact Book is a very useful tool in todays world of global thought. The information that is found there is an excellent starting point for gathering an understanding of any world nation. 2. The Global Security Foundation is a non-partisan, non-profit organization that is dedicated to keeping track of the proliferation of nuclear weaponry. 3. The United States Department of State is part of the US government, and posts its de-classified information on the internet. 4. The United States Federal Bureau of Investigations is the central location for information on any criminal that is deemed to be of a threat to the nation as a whole. 5. Begin Match to source 13 in source list: Robinson, William H. Lake, Jennifer E. S. The 9/11 Commission wasEnd Match created Begin Match to source 13 in source list: Robinson, William H. Lake, Jennifer E. S. toEnd Match investigate Begin Match to source 13 in source list: Robinson, William H. Lake, Jennifer E. S. theEnd Match short comings Begin Match to source 13 in source list: Robinson, William H. Lake, Jennifer E. S. ofEnd Match the United States security, and find out how and why Al-Qaeda was able to attack from within the United States. 6. Time magazine has been a trusted name in world news for decades. The weekly journal offers insight to world events. 7. USA Today is another trusted source of news. This daily journal centers on the issues that directly involve the United States.Ã [i] North Korea. CIA World Fact Book. United States Government: Central Intelligence Agency. 2006. Date of access: December 1, 2006. Begin Match to source 11 in source list: (2-3-07) http://www. canadaol. com/search. php? opt=2keyword=+haitiURL: https://www. cia. gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/End MatchknBegin Match to source 11 in source list: (2-3-07) http://www.canadaol. com/search. php? opt=2keyword=+haiti. htmlEnd Match [ii] Nuclear Weapons Testing. Global Security Foundation. Date of access: December 1, 2006. URL: Begin Match to source 10 in source list: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/List_of_countries_with_nuclear_weaponshttp://www. globalsecurity. org/wmd/world/dprk/nuke- test. htmEnd Match [iii] ibid. [iv] Begin Match to source 8 in source list: (5-6-03) http://www. itravelnow. com/nukebrowser. php? filnavn=http://travel. state. gov:80/iran_warning. htmlTravel Warning:End Match Iran. Begin Match to source 8 in source list: (5-6-03) http://www. itravelnow. com/nukebrowser. php? filnavn=http://travel. state. gov:80/iran_warning. htmlUnited States Department of State. Bureau of Consular Affairs. End Match 2006. Date of Access: December 1, 2006. URL: Begin Match to source 6 in source list: (9-24-06) http://iran. gerffa. org/index. htmlhttp://travel. state. gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/tw/tw_920. htmlEnd Match [v] Osama Bin Laden. Federal Bureau of Investigations. 2006. Date of access: December 1, 2006. URL: Begin Match to source 5 in source list: (1-2-07) http://www.pwgd. com/blog/lb/6196-fbino-hard-evidence-connecting-bin-laden-connected-to-911-how-israeli-terrorist-became-a-victim-global-snapshots-capitalist-intersection-of-class-nationalrace-gender-oppression/http://www. fbi. gov/wanted/terrorists/terbinladen. htmEnd Match [vi] The US 9/11 Commission on Border Control. (2004). Blackwell Publishing Ltd. P569-574. [vii] Zagorin, Adam. (22 November 2004). Bordering On Nukes? Time. Vol. 164 Issue 21, p19. [viii] Kiely, Kathy. (13 April 2006). GOP View: Illegal Immigration wont be Felony. USA Today.